One of the most complicated part of photography is different types of lenses used in this. It is nearly impossible to understand the proper function of every lens without proper knowledge. To make this task less daunting for you, i have prepared a list for all the major types of lenses available.
Normal Standard Lens – A normal or standard lens is a lens that matches the angle of view of human vision that is in focus (50 degree view). On a full frame DSLR a 50mm lens gives us this 50 degree view of the world. The lens that gives us this view varies slightly in mm depending on your sensor size.
Wide Angle Lens – A lens with field of view wider than the angle of focused human vision or standard lenses (50mm). Lenses with a focal length between 24mm and 50mm are considered Wide Angle.
Telephoto Lens – A lens with field of view narrower than the angle of focused human vision or standard lenses (50mm). Lenses with a focal length from 50mm up to 1000mm are considered telephoto.
Zoom Lens – A lens with a variable focal length. Zooms lenses can be wide, telephoto or cross both the wide and telephoto range. Example of a wide zoom lens 14mm- 24mm. Example of a telephoto zoom lens 100mm to 400mm. Example of a zoom lens that goes from wide to telephoto 24mm to 105mm.
Prime Lens – A lens with a fixed focal length. This is a lens that cannot zoom and only has one view. Examples of prime lenses, 17mm, 24mm, 100mm, 300mm
Super Wide Angle Lens – A lens with a focal length wider than 24mm. Examples of super wide lenses 10mm, 14mm, 16mm.
Fish Eye Lens – A lens with an angle of view of about 180 degrees. Recognisable for their extremely curved front glass. They give us an extremely wide view of the world. In order to achieve this wide view the images are very heavily distorted which is very prominent around the edges.
Macro Lens – A lens that allows you to get extremely close to subject while still maintaining its ability to focus on the subject. This allows us to capture incredible detail from our subjects.